A cohort study of surgical site infections (SSIs) was conducted in 582 orthopaedic surgical patients at Cho Ray Hospital, a reference hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, in order to determine the incidence and analyse risk factors for SSIs in this population. The SSI incidence rate was 12.5% (73 of 582); 3.6% incisional SSIs, 6.8% deep incisional SSIs and 2.1% organ/space SSIs. The incidence increased from 2% in clean wounds to 44.6% in dirty wounds, or 1.3% in patients with a National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) risk index of 0 to 75% in patients with an NNIS risk ratio of 3. In multi-variate analysis, having a dirty wound [odds ratio (OR) 8.7; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 4.6-16.4], American Society of Anesthesiologists' score > 2 (OR 3.9; 95%CI 1.8-8.8), procedures with external fixation (OR 2.9; 95%CI 1.4-5.9), emergency surgery with motor-vehicle-retated trauma (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.2-3.9), or duration of procedure > 2 h (OR 2.1; 95%CI 1.1-4.2) were independent risk factors for SSI. Lack of appropriate prophylaxis was of borderline significance (OR 3.2; 95%CI 0.9-11.1, P = 0.06). Among 76 patients with SSIs, 22 patients were discovered during postdischarge follow-up. These late SSIs had age as an additional risk factor (OR 2.8; 95%CI 1.1-7.2). Our data show that SSIs were frequent and differed widely by wound class. The NNIS risk index was predictive of SSI for this population. With a high number of motor vehicle accidents in Vietnam, the majority of orthopaedic operations are trauma related. Emergency surgery for injuries sustained in these accidents, and procedures with external fixation were especially prone to infections.
Journal of Hospital Infection Vol. 60, no. 4, p. 360-367