A number of modern physical techniques are used to characterize heterogeneous catalysts. These methods range from techniques probing the interaction of catalysts with probe molecules, to in situ surface characterization techniques as well as structural elucidation under both in situ and ex situ conditions. In general, interaction of catalysts with probe molecules is followed using some spectroscopic property of the probe molecule itself and/or the changes induced by the heterogeneous catalyst. The spectroscopic techniques used include vibrational spectroscopies, NMR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and mass spectrometry to name a few examples. Similarly, in situ techniques tend to use properties of probe molecules but also combined with structural techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). In recent years XAS has been widely used in the characterization of catalysts and catalyst surfaces.