Mound systems offer the smallest footprint combination of secondary treatment and land application. In addition mound systems offer a sustainable on-site wastewater management option for many constrained sites. This paper reviews current practice in regulation, design and construction of mound systems in Australia for both domestic and commercial applications and reviews recent advances in comparable practice in the United States. A number of innovations with potential to enhance mound performance are described. These include refinements in wastewater application systems and modified construction for improved in-mound storage, evapotranspiration and nutrient removal. The paper concludes by providing some direction for regulatory reform to embrace best practice.